Conducted research for use in baking flour swelling (textured, modified) obtained by extrusion processing of cereal crops such as millet, barley, oats and major cereal crops — rye and wheat. In spite of the fact that the principle of extrusion has been known since the seventeenth century, widely used in the food industry this technology began only in the thirties of the 20th century.
The feasibility of expanding the use of extrusion technology in comparison with traditional due to a significant reduction in the duration of the production cycle, due to the combination of several technological operations: reduce consumption of raw materials, energy and labor costs per unit of finished product microbiological purity of the obtained product, achieving some flexibility from the point of view of its resetting on the production of other products. During hot extrusion (high temperature, pressure and mechanical stress) starchy grain and cereal raw materials undergoing profound changes in its complex carbohydrate. Starch dextrinized.
The number of native starch is reduced in 1.8-2 times. The content of water-soluble substances is increased 5 to 8 times compared to the raw material that characterizes the increase of the nutritive value of cereal extrudates and increase of their absorption by the human body.
During extrusion process reduces the content of free amino acids due to their interaction with reducing sugars and the formation of melanoidin. The decrease in the content of proteins can be explained not only by the reaction of malonodinitrile, but also by changes in fractional composition of proteins, namely, increases the amount of insoluble protein.
During extrusion processing has been the persistence of Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (PP), Pantothenic acid and Biotin.
During extrusion processing of grain raw materials do not change the properties of the fatty substances and the formation of krajmalnik complexes. Extrusion processing reduces the activity of hydrolytic and redox enzymes. In the extrusion process inactivated lipase and decreases the activity of lipoxygenase, which contributes to longer shelf life of products.
The extrudates cereal crops are widely used nowadays as fillers or additives with elevated moisture and gerogerigegege properties. So, the coefficient of swellability of the native (raw) oat flour is 2.8 cm3/g, and after extrusion processing increases the average in 2,5 — 3 times and is respectively 8 cm3/g.
At this time, many bakeries use textured flour as an additive to the basic recipe. This allows to expand the range of manufactured products, and to increase the number of buyers.