Текстурированная ржаная мука


При горячей экструзии (высокая температура, давление и механическая нагрузка) в крахмалосодержащем сырье происходят глубокие изменения в его углеводном комплексе. Крахмал декстренизируется. Содержание нативного крахмала снижается в 1,8-2,0 раза. Содержание водорастворимых веществ повышается в 5-8 раз по сравнению с исходным сырьем, что характеризует повышение их усвояемости организмом человека.

В процессе экструзии инактивируется липаза и снижается активность липоксигеназы, что реально обеспечивает более длительное хранение продуктов без применения консервантов и других химических добавок.

Наилучший эффект наблюдается при замене части пшеничной муки в ржано-пшеничных сортах хлеба на экструдаты. Оптимальная дозировка экструдатов (3-10) % к рецептурному количеству пшеничной муки.

Мука пшеничная 1 сорта — 95%
Мука текстурированная ржаная — 5%

Основными факторами, отличающими хлебобулочные изделия с использованием текстурированной муки, являются:
1. Тестовые заготовки увеличиваются в объеме, что связано с состоянием крахмала в текстурированной муке (содержится большее количество декстринов, увеличивающих газообразование в тесте).
2. Тесто становится более пластичным, улучшается состояние и структура мякиша.
3. Цвет корки более интенсивный.
4. Повышается водопоглотительная способность муки при замесе теста, вследствие значительной гидрофильности экструдата, интенсивно связывающего воду. Это позволяет увеличить влажность теста и, как следствие, увеличить выход готовых изделий.

Дополнительно необходимо отметить, что ржаная текстурированная мука является основой для сухой заварки, используемой при приготовлении заварных сортов хлеба. Применение ржаной текстурированной муки исключает трудоемкую, длительную и энергоемкую стадию осахарения традиционной заварки.

Наряду с использованием текстурированной муки в производстве хлебобулочных изделий возможно ее применение и при производстве мучных кондитерских изделий, в частности бисквитного полуфабриката и пряников. Так как текстурированная мука обладает определенной эмульгирующей способностью, то это позволяет вносить ее взамен части яйца (10% от общей массы яйца) без ухудшения показателей качества готового изделия.

С технологической и экономической точек зрения целесообразно использовать ржаную текстурированную муку при производстве заварных пряников. Внесение такой муки взамен части пшеничной муки позволяет сохранять изделие свежим не менее 40 суток.
В настоящее время текстурированная мука применяется на ряде предприятий Киева, Днепропетровска, Винницы, Одессы, Сум, Донецка, Харькова при производстве оригинальных сортов хлебобулочных изделий батон ЕВРОПЕЙСКИЙ, батон НОВИНКА, хлеб АРТЕМОВСКИЙ, хлеб МАИСОВЫЙ и другие.


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