Применение пряностей в хлебопечении

Пряновкусовые вещества (пряности) — продукты растительного происхождения — добавляют к пище в небольшом количестве для придания ей приятного вкуса и запаха. Пряности вызывают усиленное выделение пищеварительных соков и поэтому увеличивают усвояемость пищи.

Пряности классифицируются по тем частям растений, которые дают их:

1) семена — горчица, мускатный орех;

2) плоды — ваниль, кардамон, перец, тмин, анис, кориандр);

3) цветы и их части — гвоздика, шафран;

4) листья — лавровый лист, укроп, петрушка, эстрагон;

5) кора — корица;

6) корни — имбирь сладкий (солодковый корень).

Помимо перечисленных пряностей имеются сотни других пряновкусовых растений, применяемых населением в пищу, но невведенных в промышленное производство.

Пряности содержат или эфирные масла, или островкусовые вещества. В хлебопечении пряности применяются для придания хлебным изделиям вкуса, запаха, а иногда и цвета; некоторые из них влияют на процесс брожения (анис, тмин и др.). В большем количестве пряности применяются в мучных кондитерских изделиях. Наиболее часто применяются в хлебопечении и мучных кондитерских изделиях ваниль, тмин, кориандр, шафран, корица, гвоздика.

Ваниль

Ваниль — стручки некоторых видов растения орхидеи. Произрастает только в тропических странах. Ваниль разводится черенками на деревьях. Черенки пускают корни в кору и достигают 15 м длины, обвивая деревья в виде лианы. Цветы ванили обладают нежным запахом.

Плоды валили (стручки) имеют длину 12—25 см и ширину 4—8 мм; они наполнены бальзамическим студенистым содержимым, в котором находятся мелкие семена. Плоды собирают недозревшими, провяливают на воздухе, пучками завертывают в шерстяную ткань для ферментации на солнце. Затем на солнце же их досушивают открытыми, сортируют по длине и упаковывают в стаиноль (фольгу) или связывают в пучки по 50 шт. и хранят в плотно закрытой таре.
Стручки представляют собой мясистые палочки, покрытые тёмно-коричневой чуть блестящей кожицей с продольными морщинами. Характерный для ванили тонкий аромат стручков обусловлен ванилином, содержание которого колеблется от 1,16 до 2,75%, в зависимости от сорта.

Хорошая ваниль должна иметь стручки длинные, гибкие, неповрежденные, обильно наполненные содержимым, с тонкой кожицей хорошей окраски и с легким жирным блеском. При хранении стручки иногда покрываются мелкими кристалликами ванилина.

Ванилин найден также в целом ряде других растений, в частности он содержится в небольшом количестве в сахарной свекле.

Ванилин можно получать искусственно из разного сырья. Качество синтетического ванилина мало отличается от натурального.

Анис

Анис — плоды-двухсемянки, однолетнего растения из семейства зонтичных.

В СССР культивировался в Воронежской области и других районах. Культура аниса распространена во многих странах Европы, Азии и Америки. Советский анис считался лучшим в мире по содержанию эфирного масла (от 2,4 до 3,2%).

Семена аниса мелкие: в 1 кг содержится до 500 тыс. двойных семян. Форма семян яйцевидная, с боков слегка сжатая, окраска коричневая с зеленым оттенком, вкус сладкий, запах приятный.

Из аниса добывается анисовое масло, состоящее из анетола (80—95%), экстрагола, анисового альдегида и других веществ.

Анис надо сохранять в плотно закрытых ящиках, в бочках, чтобы уменьшить потери эфирного масла.

Анис применяется в хлебопечении в разных сортах хлеба из ржаной муки и в сдобных изделиях, добавляется в кондитерские изделия, а также во многие кушанья.

Кориандр

Кориандр (коляндра, кишнец, бифора) — плоды-двухсемянки однолетнего растения из семейства зонтичных. Культивируется в Воронежской и других областях. За последнее время район распространения кориандра значительно расширился, так как он может вызревать и в более северных районах.

Семена кориандра имеют почти круглую форму. Свежие плоды его отличаются неприятным запахом, но после сушки приобретают характерный аромат, более грубый, чем у аниса.

Аромат кориандра зависит от содержащегося в нем эфирного масла (1,5—2%), в состав которого входит линалоол (60—80% от веса масла).

Кориандр в хлебопечении применяется как в изделиях из ржаной муки, так и в других хлебных изделиях.

Тмин

Тмин — двухлетнее растение из семейства зонтичных, встречается дикорастущим по всей Европе, на Кавказе и в Сибири, а также культивируется в СССР, главным образом в Ростовском районе Ярославской области.

Плод тмина — двухсемянка, содержит в среднем 6% эфирного масла, основная составная часть которого — карвон.

Употребляется в тех же сортах хлеба, что и кориандр; применяется также в кондитерском производстве и при приготовлении сыра и ликеро-водочных изделий.

Шафран
Шафран — растение из семейства касатиковых. Возделывается в Бакинском районе Азербайджана. Культура его очень трудоемка: цветы собирают, как только они распустятся, выщипываются рыльца и сушат их над горячими углями. С 1 га получается 20 кг сухого шафрана.

Сушеные рыльца шафрана прибавляют в отдельные сдобные сорта хлеба: шафрановые булочки, кексы и другие изделия. Шафран придает изделиям особый вкус, благодаря содержанию в нем эфирного масла (0,6%), и характерный цвет, зависящий от содержащегося в нем красящего вещества хроцика или полихронта.

Шафран иногда фальсифицируется добавлением пестиков цветов. Для определения фальсификации шафран размалывают в порошок и распыливают на поверхности воды, при этом все частицы настоящего шафрана дают вокруг себя желтое окрашивание. При употреблении шафран кипятят с водой, и настой (водную вытяжку) употребляют в тесто.

Гвоздика

Гвоздика — сушеные цветочные почки гвоздичного дерева из семейства миртовых, произрастает в тропических странах. Гвоздичное дерево — вечнозеленое: цветет два раза в году (в июне и декабре). Ароматный запах гвоздики свойственен продолговатым острым (ланцетовидным) кожистым листьям, цветам и коре. Цветочные почки, вначале зеленые, постепенно принимают светлокрасную окраску; в это время запах их наиболее интенсивен. Собранные почки сушат на солнце или в сушилках почти на голом огне.

Длина гвоздики 10—16 мм (крупные сорта) и 4—10 мм (мелкие сорта). Аромат гвоздики зависит от эфирного масла (10,2— 26,6%), содержащего спирт эвгенол (90—92%).

Гвоздика в виде сушеных цветочных почек употребляется как пряность (в пряничном производстве); но много ее идет для получения эфирного масла, потребляемого в парфюмерии, и для производства ванилина.

Корица

Корица — кора вечнозеленого коричного дерева из семейства лавровых. Наибольшее значение имеют два сорта корицы: цейлонская и китайская.

Кора снимается со срезанных сучьев, связывается в пачки и лежит несколько дней, затем с нее соскабливается верхний слой. Трубки из коры подсушиваются, вставляются одна в другую и окончательно высушиваются на воздухе.

Аромат корицы обусловлен эфирным маслом (менее 1%), основной составной частью которого является коричный альдегид.

Корица в виде порошка употребляется при приготовлении пряничного теста, а также для приготовления кушаний, ликеров и в парфюмерий.

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