Экструдаты при ускоренных способах производства заварных сортов хлеба.

gr_muka

Проведены исследования по использованию в хлебопечении муки набухающей (текстурированной, модифициро­ванной), полученной путем экстру­зионной обработки таких крупяных культур, как: просо, ячмень, овес и основных злаковых культур — рожь и пшеница. Несмотря, на то, что принцип экструзии был известен с XVII века, широко использовать в пищевой промышленности эту технологию начали лишь в трид­цатые годы 20-го века.

Целесообразность расширения использования экструзионной тех­нологии по сравнению с традици­онной обусловлена существенным сокращением длительности про­изводственного цикла, вследствие совмещения ряда технологичес­ких операций: снижения расхода сырья, энерго- и трудозатрат на единицу готового продукта, мик­робиологическая чистота полу­ченного продукта, достижение оп­ределенной гибкости производ­ства с точки зрения его перенала­живания на производство других видов продукции. При горячей экструзии (высокие температуры, давление и механические нагруз­ки) крахмалсодержащего зерно­вого и крупяного сырья происхо­дят глубокие изменения в его угле­водном комплексе. Крахмал декстренизируется.

Количество нативного крахмала снижается в 1,8-2 раза. Содержание водорастворимых веществ повыша­ется в 5 — 8 раз по сравнению с исходным сырьем, что характе­ризует повышение пищевой цен­ности зерновых экструдатов и повышение их усвояемости ор­ганизмом человека.

В процессе экструзионной обработки снижается содержание свободных аминокислот, что объясняется их взаимодействием с восстанавливающими сахарами и образованием меланоидов. Снижение содержания белков объясняется не только реакцией меланоидинообразования, но и изменением фракционного состава белков, а именно, увеличивается содержание нерастворимого белка.

В процессе экструзионной обработки наблюдалась полная сохраняемость рибофлавина (В2), ниацина (РР), пантотеновой кислоты и биотина.

При экструзионной обработке зернового сырья не изменяются свойства жировых веществ, а происходит образование крахмаллипидных комплексов. Экструзионная обработка снижает активность гидролитических и окислительно-восстановительных ферментов. В процессе экструзии инактивируется липаза и снижается активность липоксигеназы, что способствует более длительному хранению продуктов.

Экструдаты крупяных культур широко используются в настоящее время как наполнители или добавки с повышенными влаго- и жироудерживающими свойствами. Так, коэффициент набухаемости нативной (необработанной) овсяной муки составляет 2,8 см3/г, а после экструзионной обработки повышается в среднем в 2,5 — 3 раза и составляет соответственно 8 см3/г.

В данное время многие хлебокомбинаты используют текстурированную муку как добавку к основной рецептуре. Это позволяет расширить ряд производимых продуктов, а также увеличить количество покупателей.

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