Дефицит белка в муке можно дополнить разными добавками

В  последнее время наблюдается тен­денции увеличения поставок на ры­нок муки с низкими хлебопекарными свойствами и снижение уровня белка в зер­не. Я остановлюсь на последнем — на дефи­ците белка. Эта проблема в последние годы стала особенно острой.

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Так как выработка высокобелковой му­ки в стране резко сократилась, то, очевидно, решать этот вопрос следует другим пу­тем. Каким же?

За рубежом давно и широко используется сухая пшеничная клейковина во многих отраслях пищевой промышленности. В нашей стране применение сухой пшеничной клейко­вины обусловлено как корректировкой хлебо­пекарных свойств муки, так и выработкой из­делий повышенной пищевой ценности. При выработке специальных сортов хлеба, разра­ботанных в институте, сухая пшеничная клей­ковина, как белый обогатитель, применятся в количестве от 10 до 40 % от массы муки.

Однако добавки сухой клейковины слиш­ком дороги, поэтому из ряда вариантов наиболее перспективным мы считаем использо­вание в качестве белого обогатителя соевую муку. Правда, внесение соевой муки несколь­ко меняет потребительские свойства продук­ции, но существенно обогащает хлеб белком.

Для улучшения потребительских свойств хлеба с увеличенным содержанием соевой муки нами разработаны техно­логии приготовления теста, в которых очень точно учтены особенности взаимо­действия белков сырья различного проис­хождения.

Таким образом, получены новые сорта хлеба с добавлением 6-12 % соевой муки.

Содержание белка в них выше на 18-32 % по сравнению с изделиями из пшеничной муки. Перечень их достаточно большой.

Для эффективной защиты от вредного воздействия окружающей среды мы рекомендуем включать в рецептуру хлебобулоч­ных изделий бета-каротин (провитамин А). В последние годы он привлекает все большее внимание медиков и специалистов по рацио­нальному питанию в нашей стране и за ру­бежом как средство, способствующее вос­становлению нормальных иммунных реак­ций, снижению риска сердечно-сосудистых онкологических и др. заболеваний.

Для обогащения хлебобулочных изделий используют как природный каротин (концен­траты моркови, тыквы, шиповника, облепих/ и др.), так и каротин, производимый про­мышленным способом. Согласно медицин­ским рекомендациям суточное потребление бета-каротина с пищей должно составлять не менее 5-6 мг.

В то же время поступление этого ценного вещества с обычным рационом составляет в среднем 2 мг в сутки. В отличие от витамина А, прием которого в дозах, существенно превышающих физиологическую потребность, может вызвать токсические явления, бета-каротин совершенно не токсичен и регулярный прием его даже в очень больших дозах не ведет к каким-либо побочным эффектам.

В 100 г хлебных изделий, разработанных в институте, содержится не менее 2 мг бета- каротина, что составляет около 30 % реко­мендуемой суточной дозы его потребления.

Исследования последних десятилетий уста­новили связь между потреблением в пищу богатых каротиноидами овощей и фруктов г низкой частотой некоторых форм рака. Все это дает основание считать, что увеличение потребления каротина, в частности в форме обогащенных им хлебобулочных изделий становится важным и эффективным сред­ством в общей системе мер, направленных на снижение риска онкологических заболеваний людей, проживающих в регионах с повышенным уровнем радиации.

К другой, хорошо известной радиопротекторной добавке, относится кальций, необходимый в питании населения всех регионов. Для жителей районов с повышенным загрязнением окружающей  среды радионуклидами, он необходим в повышенных дозах. Кальций обеспечивает конкурентное замещение и выведение из организма радиоактивного стронция.

По данным отечественных и зарубежных исследований, обогащение пищевого рациона кальцием снижает опасность воздействия радиоактивного стронция на организм челове­ка приблизительно в 1,5 раза, а в детском возрасте кальций необходим для формирования костной ткани.

 К числу очень серьезных следует отнести проблему йодной недостаточности у населения.  Йод, как известно, один из важнейших микроэлементов, необходимый для синтезирования гормонов щитовидной железы, без которых невозможно нормальное функционирование человеческого организма. При недостаточном поступлении йода возникают существенные нарушения в функции железы приводящие к развитию зоба, заторможенности, физической и умственной отсталости у детей. Для решения проблемы учеными нашего отдела разработана нормативная документация на хлеб йодированный, который может вырабатываться из пшеничной муки высшего, первого, второго сортов или смеси её со ржаной обдирной мукой, йодирование хлеба может осуществляться за счет любого йодсодержащего сырья йодированной соли, йодированных дрожжей и др.).

В 2002 г. мы разработали документацию на хлебобулочные изделия с йодказеином. Это хлеб из ржаной и смеси ржаной и пшеничной муки с йодказеином, хлеб из пшеничной муки с йодказеином, изделия  булочные и сдобные с йодказеином.

 К новому направлению, развиваемому за рубежом и сейчас в России, относится производство хлебобулочных изделий с использованием диспергированного зерна ржи, пшеницы, отличающихся повышенным содержанием витаминов группы В, Е, РР и ценных компонентов цельного зерна: угле­водов, пищевых волокон, аминокислот, жи­ров, минеральных веществ (железа, каль­ция, фосфора). Разработанные нашим отделом хлебобулочные изделия из диспергиро­ванного зерна или с его добавлением реко­мендуются для профилактики сердечно-со­судистых заболеваний, ожирения, а также населению регионов с повышенным загряз­нением окружающей среды.

Регулярное потребление витаминизиро­ванного хлеба способствует повышению устойчивости организма к неблагоприятным воздействиям окружающей среды, ускорению выздоровления при различных заболе­ваниях, повышению тонуса при стрессовых ситуациях и физических нагрузках.
Наиболее распространенными становят­ся изделия с добавками адсорбирующего свойства — пищевыми волокнами. Волокна играют важную роль в активизации про­цессов обмена веществ и выведении из ор­ганизма вредных продуктов жизнедеятель­ности. Пищевые волокна способствуют также удалению из организма нежелатель­ных компонентов, которые могут попасть в него из загрязнений окружающей среды — тяжелых металлов, радионуклидов.

 Расширение ассортимента хлебобулочных изделий диетического и профилактического назначения, в т.ч. с кальцием, витаминно-ми­неральными препаратами, белковыми обога­тителями, с пищевыми волокнами необходи­мо в первую очередь для лиц тяжелых и вредных профессий, спецконтингента.

Осо­бенно актуально это становится для таких регионов Украины, как Харьков, Луганск, Днепропетровск, Донецк, Запорожье, где развита металлургическая, машинострои­тельная и угольная промышленность.

 

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