Мука ржаная

12372_img С древних времен ржаной хлеб был одним из главных продуктов питания, который присутствовал не только на столах бедного населения Руси, но и более зажиточных людей. Это и не удивительно, так как хлеб из ржаной муки наиболее соответствует потребностям человеческого организма.

Ржаная мука по сравнению с мукой пшеничной характеризуется более темным цветом, а готовые изделия из нее хранятся значительно дольше. Хлебопекарные свойства муки ржаной напрямую зависят от содержания клейковины, а этого компонента в ней чересчур мало. Клейковина, кстати, отвечает за упругость, растяжимость и эластичность теста, от чего зависит объем готового хлебного изделия, его величина, форма и структура пористости. Для того чтобы компенсировать этот недостаток, данный вид муки рекомендуют смешивать с пшеничной.

Тесто из смеси ржаной и пшеничной муки в процессе замеса достаточно сильно липнет к рукам, поэтому работать с ним довольно сложно, но ароматный ржаной хлебушек стоит того. Помимо хлеба из муки ржаной можно также приготовить кексы, блины, печенье, лепешки и пряники. А еще закваска на основе этого вида муки является неотъемлемой частью вкуснейшего русского кваса.

Как и любой другой сыпучий продукт, ржаная мука нуждается в правильных условиях хранения — сухое и прохладное место будет наилучшим вариантом. Желательно не ставить рядом с ней предметы или продукты с неприятным или резким и запахом, иначе ржаная мука их может впитать.

Сорта муки ржаной

Принято выделять три сорта муки ржаной, которые отличаются степенью помола, выходом и содержанием отрубяных частиц:

В зависимости от содержания отрубяных частиц, различается и цвет ржаной муки – чем их меньше, тем продукт светлее. Невысокая калорийность муки ржаной, а также большое количество витаминов и минеральных веществ делают готовые изделия из нее вкусными и полезными. Вне зависимости от сорта муки ржаной ее основное предназначение — выпечка столовых сортов хлеба.

Состав муки ржаной

В отличие от пшеничной мука ржаная не обладает способностью образовывать клейковину, поэтому ржаное тесто не обладает упругостью и эластичностью, свойственной пшеничному. В составе муки ржаной присутствуют более активные ферменты, которые расщепляют крахмал. В связи с этим к основным показателям, определяющим хлебопекарные свойства муки ржаной, относят автолитическую активность, так называемую способность накапливания в тесте определенного количества веществ, растворимых в воде. От этого непосредственно зависят состояние и липкость мякиша, а также форма готового изделия.

Польза муки ржаной

Рожь и получаемая из нее мука ржаная – по-настоящему целебный продукт. Польза муки ржаной заключается в способности выводить соли, токсины и шлаки из организма, тем самым помогая устранять причины различных заболеваний.

Использование в домашней кулинарии муки ржаной по сравнению с пшеничной значительно ниже, хотя и напрасно. Связано это с достаточно трудоемким процессом замешивания теста и процесса приготовления ароматного изделия в общем. При этом польза муки ржаной еще и в том, что в ней содержится гораздо большее количество белков и витаминов, по сравнению с мукой пшеничной.

Пропорции продукта. Сколько грамм?

в 1 чайной ложке 8 граммов
в 1 столовой ложке 30 граммов
в 1 стакане 160 граммов
Пищевая ценность
Ненасыщеные жирные кислоты              1 г
Насыщеные жирные кислоты                  0.2 г
Зола                                                                   1.2 г
Крахмал                                                          60.7 г
Моно- и дисахариды                                   0.9 г
Вода                                                                  14 г
Пищевые волокна                                       12.4 г
Витамины
Витамин PP (Ниациновый эквивалент) (PP)   2.8 мг
Витамин H (биотин) (H)                                         3 мкг
Витамин E (ТЭ) (E (ТЭ))                                          1.9 мг
Витамин B9 (фолиевая кислота) (B9)                50 мкг
Витамин B6 (пиридоксин) (B6)                           0.25 мг
Витамин B2 (рибофлавин) (B2)                           0.13 мг
Витамин B1 (тиамин) (B1)                                     0.35 мг
Витамин PP (PP)                                                        1 мг
Минеральные вещества
Алюминий (Al)    270 мкг
Молибден (Mo)   6.4 мкг
Фтор (F)                38 мкг
Марганец (Mn)  1.34 мг
Медь (Cu)            230 мкг
Йод (I)                  3.9 мкг
Цинк (Zn)            1.23 мг
Железо (Fe)         3.5 мг
Сера (S)                68 мг
Фосфор (P)          189 мг
Калий (K)            350 мг
Натрий (Na)       2 мг
Магний (Mg)      60 мг
Кальций (Ca)      34 мг

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